Respiratory Publications

2018 Article - "Adenovirus types associated with severe respiratory diseases: A retrospective 4-year study in Kuwait" (limited access)

Summary: Human adenovirus (HAdV) infection can result in a severe respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to identify HAdV types detected in patients hospitalized for severe respiratory illness. The study population consisted of 743 patients with severe respiratory disease admitted to four major hospitals in Kuwait between January 2013 and December 2016. Respiratory specimens were retrospectively screened for 20 respiratory viruses by real-time PCR. The HAdV hexon gene was amplified and directly sequenced, and HAdV types were identified by performing Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. HAdV DNA was detected in 27 (3.6%) patients, with peaks in November and March. Most patients were infants and young children suffering from pneumonia or acute bronchiolitis. The detected HAdV types were C1, C2, C5, B3, and B7. Clusters of HAdV C1, C2, and C5 were observed with high posterior probability. All patients infected with HAdV C5 and 50% of patients infected with HAdV C2 or B7 were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Co-infection with other viruses was detected in 44.4% of patients. The most common co-infecting virus was rhinovirus (HRV). HAdV/HRV co-infection was detected in two children who presumably developed disseminated HAdV infection and died. This is the first report describing the circulation of HAdV types associated with severe outcomes in Kuwait. These findings highlight the need for a national surveillance system to monitor changes in predominant HAdV types and increased numbers of severe respiratory infections.

Kit used: FTD Respiratory pathogens 21
Website link

2018 Article - "Clinical characteristics of influenza virus-induced lower respiratory infection during the 2015 to 2016 season" (limited access)

Background Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections often manifest severe respiratory symptoms, particularly in patients with a past history of allergic disease. Most of these findings were reported during the 2009 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to detail the clinical characteristics of influenza virus-induced lower respiratory infection (LRI) during the A(H1N1)pdm09-predominant 2015–2016 season. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics of influenza-induced LRI cases in children admitted to a tertiary children's hospital. Molecular diagnostic evaluation was performed on samples obtained from the most severe cases. Results We identified 66 patients with influenza-associated hospitalization and included 21 patients with influenza virus-induced LRI for analyses. Twelve patients (57%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, seven (33%) required mechanical ventilation, and three (14%) required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Plastic bronchitis (PB) was identified in six patients (29%), among whom a past medical history of asthma or food allergy were noted in all six patients. A past history of allergic disease was more common among patients with, than among those without, PB (p = 0.009). A(H1N1)pdm09 was detected from all the PB cases, and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes demonstrated that this virus belonged to subclades 6B.1 and 6B.2. In the six PB cases, we found one patient with H275Y mutation in neuraminidase. Conclusion Allergic disease was a risk factor for developing PB due to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection during the 2015–16 season.

Kit used: FTD Respiratory pathogens 21
Website link

2018 Article - "Live-Attenuated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Candidate With Deletion of RNA Synthesis Regulatory Protein M2-2 is Highly Immunogenic in Children" (limited access)

Background: Live respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) candidate vaccine LIDΔM2-2 is attenuated by deletion of the RSV RNA regulatory protein M2-2, resulting in upregulated viral gene transcription and antigen expression but reduced RNA replication.

Methods: RSV-seronegative children ages 6–24 months received a single intranasal dose of 105 plaque forming units (PFU) of LIDΔM2-2 (n = 20) or placebo (n = 9) (NCT02237209, NCT02040831). RSV serum antibodies, vaccine infectivity, and reactogenicity were assessed. During the following RSV season, participants were monitored for respiratory illness and pre- and post-RSV season serum antibodies.

Results: Vaccine virus was shed by 95% of vaccinees (median peak titers of 3.8 log10 PFU/mL by quantitative culture and 6.3 log10 copies/mL by PCR); 90% had ≥4-fold rise in serum neutralizing antibodies. Respiratory symptoms and fever were common in vaccine (95%) and placebo (78%). One vaccinee had grade 2 rhonchi concurrent with vaccine shedding, rhinovirus, and enterovirus. Eight of 19 vaccinees versus 2 of 9 placebo recipients had substantially increased RSV antibody titers after the RSV season without medically attended RSV disease, indicating anamnestic vaccine responses to wild-type RSV without significant illness.

Conclusion: LIDΔM2-2 had excellent infectivity and immunogenicity, encouraging further study of vaccine candidates attenuated by M2-2 deletion.

Kit used: FTD FTD Respiratory pathogens 21
Website link

2016 Article - "Underdiagnosing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections as revealed by use of a respiratory multiplex PCR panel" (limited access)

Summary: We compared a multiplex PCR diagnostic approach against specific PCR diagnosis for detection of Mycoplasmapneumoniae infection. Seventy-five percent of all M. pneumoniae infections were only detected “unintentionally”by the use of the multiplex PCR indicating underdiagnosing of M. pneumoniae due to absenceof clinical suspicion.

Kit used: FTD Respiratory pathogens 21
Website link

2016 Article - "A new real-time RT-qPCR assay for the detection, subtyping and quantification of human respiratory syncytial viruses positive- andnegative-sense RNAs" (limited access)

Summary: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major health problem and the main cause of hospitalization due to bronchiolitis. RSV is divided into two antigenic subgroups, RSV-A and -B that co-circulate worldwide. Rapid and sensitive detection is desirable for proper patient handling while assessment of viral load may help to evaluate disease severity and progression. Finally RSV subtyping is needed to determine the prevalence and pathogenicity of each RSV subgroup, as well as their sensitivity to treatment. In this study, we took into account the most recent circulating RSV variants and designed two quantitative TaqMan one-step RT-PCR assays to detect and quantify both RSV subgroups separately. Standard dilutions of transcripts of positive and negative polarities were included in the assay validation to assess potential differences in sensitivity on negative-sense genomes and positive-sense RNAs. In addition, RSV detection in respiratory specimens of different types and sampled in different populations was compared to commercially available RSV diagnostic tools. Altogether, the RSV-A and -B assays revealed sensitive and quantitative over a wide range of viral loads, with a slight improved sensitivity of the RSV-B assay on positive sense transcripts, and allowed accurate RSV subtyping. We thus provide a useful tool for both RSV diagnostics and research.

Kit used: FTD Respiratory pathogens 21
Website link

2016 Article - "Missed opportunities for antimicrobial stewardship in pre-school children admitted to hospital with lower respiratory tract infection" (limited access)

Summary: To describe the usage of multiplex polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples in pre-school children presenting with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) at Christchurch Hospital, and its impact on the use of antibiotics empirically and at discharge. This retrospective cohort study included 237 children, ages 3 months to 5 years, admitted to hospital during the winter months of 2012–2015 with a diagnosis of community-acquired LRTI. Children were identified by discharge coding and their notes reviewed. A significantly larger proportion of children who had a NPS sample taken (42/146, 36%) received no empiric antibiotics compared with children who did not have a sample taken (7/91, 7.7%, P < 0.001). Of those who did have a NPS sample taken 17 of 146 (11.6%) had their antibiotics discontinued prior to or at the time of discharge compared with only 3 of 91 (3.3%) of those who did not have a NPS sample (P < 0.025). Children with influenza detected were more likely to receive no antibiotics or have their antibiotics discontinued prior to or at discharge. Only a small proportion of children with other viruses identified had their antibiotics discontinued. It appears that clinicians were generally reluctant to stop antibiotics prior to discharge in young children with LRTI in whom influenza or other viruses were identified. In our view, it makes sense to stop antibiotics when the clinical presentation and NPS testing is consistent with a viral aetiology. Not stopping antibiotics at or before discharge in these children represents a missed opportunity for antimicrobial stewardship.

Kit used: FTD Respiratory pathogens 21
Website link

2013 Article - "Detection of respiratory viruses using a multiplex real-time PCR assay in Germany, 2009/10" (limited access)

Summary: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory viruses and to prospectively evaluate the performance of the FTD respiratory pathogens multiplex PCR assay shortly after the 2009/10 influenza pandemic. The most prevalent viruses were respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus. Only pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1 (2009), and not seasonal influenza virus, was detected. Viruses other than influenza virus accounted for the majority of acute respiratory infections. The FTD assay can be easily implemented in general diagnostic laboratories and facilitate the optimization of patient-management schemes.

Kit used: FTD Respiratory pathogens 21
Website link

2013 Article - "Comparison of four multiplex PCR assays for the detection of viral pathogens in respiratory specimens" (limited access)

Summary: Multiplex PCR has become the test of choice for the detection of multiple respiratory viruses in clinical specimens. However, there are few direct comparisons of different PCR assays. This study compares 4 different multiplex PCR assays for the recovery of common respiratory viruses. We tested 213 respiratory specimens using four different multiplex PCR assays: the xTAG respiratory viral panel fast (Abbott Molecular Laboratories), Fast-track Respiratory Pathogen assay (Fast-track Diagnostics), Easyplex respiratory pathogen 12 kit(Ausdiagnostics), and an in-house multiplex real-time PCR assay. The performance of the four assays was very similar, with 93–100% agreement for all comparisons. Other issues, such as through-put, technical requirements and cost, are likely to be as important for making a decision about which of these assays to use given their comparative performance.

Kit used: FTD Respiratory pathogens 21
Website link

Loading...