2018 Article - "Clinical characteristics of influenza virus-induced lower respiratory infection during the 2015 to 2016 season" (limited access)

Background Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections often manifest severe respiratory symptoms, particularly in patients with a past history of allergic disease. Most of these findings were reported during the 2009 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to detail the clinical characteristics of influenza virus-induced lower respiratory infection (LRI) during the A(H1N1)pdm09-predominant 2015–2016 season. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics of influenza-induced LRI cases in children admitted to a tertiary children's hospital. Molecular diagnostic evaluation was performed on samples obtained from the most severe cases. Results We identified 66 patients with influenza-associated hospitalization and included 21 patients with influenza virus-induced LRI for analyses. Twelve patients (57%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, seven (33%) required mechanical ventilation, and three (14%) required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Plastic bronchitis (PB) was identified in six patients (29%), among whom a past medical history of asthma or food allergy were noted in all six patients. A past history of allergic disease was more common among patients with, than among those without, PB (p = 0.009). A(H1N1)pdm09 was detected from all the PB cases, and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes demonstrated that this virus belonged to subclades 6B.1 and 6B.2. In the six PB cases, we found one patient with H275Y mutation in neuraminidase. Conclusion Allergic disease was a risk factor for developing PB due to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection during the 2015–16 season.

 

Kit used: FTD Respiratory pathogens 21
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