2016 Article - "The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium tubal infections and their effects on the expression of interleukin-6 and leukaemia inhibitory factor in Fallopian tubes with and without an ectopic pregnancy" (limited access)
Summary: This was a prospective case-control study that measured the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) by an IVD CE multiplex PCR kit in fresh Fallopian tubes (FT) obtained from 96 ectopic pregnancies (EP) and 61 controls in the midluteal phase of the cycle. We later measured the expression profile of interleukin (IL)-6, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and their signalling molecules, in respect to the type and number of infections, by immunohistochemistry, ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. The frequencies of Innate Immunity CT, MG mono- and co-infections were significantly higher in EP. IL-6, LIF, their receptors and intracellular mediators were significantly (P < 0.05) upregulated at the gene and protein levels in positive compared with negative FTs within each group. EP tubal samples with co-infections showed the highest significant expression (P < 0.05) of the candidate cytokines by all techniques. In conclusion, CT and MG are frequent in EP and up-regulate the tubal expression of IL-6, LIF and their signaling molecules. Both cytokines could be involved in the tubal immune response against bacterial infections as well as the pathogenesis of EP. Further studies are needed to explore the roles of IL-6 family in infection induced tubal inflammation and EP.
Kits used: FTD Urethritis basic and FTD Gonorrhoeae confirmation