2019 Article - "Dengue virus transmission from live donor liver graft" (pdf, 1MB)
Summary: Arboviral transmission through transplanted organs is rare. We report a highly probable case of dengue viral transmission during live donor liver transplantation. Fever with severe thrombocytopenia was observed in the donor and recipient within 6 and 9 days after transplantation, respectively. Dengue diagnosis was confirmed by testing blood and explant tissue from donor and recipient using dengue specific NAT (nucleic acid testing) and serology. Serology indicated the donor to have secondary dengue infection that ran a mild course. However, the dengue illness in the recipient was severe and deteriorated rapidly, eventually proving fatal. The recipient’s explant liver tissue tested negative for viral RNA indicative of a pre-transplant naïve status. The prM-Envelope gene sequence analysis of the donor and recipient viral RNA identified similar serotype (DENV1) with almost 100% sequence identity in the envelope region. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of donor and recipient viral envelope sequences with regional and local dengue strains further confirmed their molecular similarity, suggesting a probable donor to recipient transmission via organ transplantation. Screening of living donors for dengue virus may be considered in endemic regions.
Kits used: FTD Tropical fever core, FTD Dengue differentiation
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2018 Article - "Adenovirus types associated with severe respiratory diseases: A retrospective 4-year study in Kuwait" (limited access)
Summary: Human adenovirus (HAdV) infection can result in a severe respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to identify HAdV types detected in patients hospitalized for severe respiratory illness. The study population consisted of 743 patients with severe respiratory disease admitted to four major hospitals in Kuwait between January 2013 and December 2016. Respiratory specimens were retrospectively screened for 20 respiratory viruses by real-time PCR. The HAdV hexon gene was amplified and directly sequenced, and HAdV types were identified by performing Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. HAdV DNA was detected in 27 (3.6%) patients, with peaks in November and March. Most patients were infants and young children suffering from pneumonia or acute bronchiolitis. The detected HAdV types were C1, C2, C5, B3, and B7. Clusters of HAdV C1, C2, and C5 were observed with high posterior probability. All patients infected with HAdV C5 and 50% of patients infected with HAdV C2 or B7 were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Co-infection with other viruses was detected in 44.4% of patients. The most common co-infecting virus was rhinovirus (HRV). HAdV/HRV co-infection was detected in two children who presumably developed disseminated HAdV infection and died. This is the first report describing the circulation of HAdV types associated with severe outcomes in Kuwait. These findings highlight the need for a national surveillance system to monitor changes in predominant HAdV types and increased numbers of severe respiratory infections.
Kit used: FTD Respiratory pathogens 21
2018 Article - "Clinical characteristics of influenza virus-induced lower respiratory infection during the 2015 to 2016 season" (limited access)
Background Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections often manifest severe respiratory symptoms, particularly in patients with a past history of allergic disease. Most of these findings were reported during the 2009 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to detail the clinical characteristics of influenza virus-induced lower respiratory infection (LRI) during the A(H1N1)pdm09-predominant 2015–2016 season. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics of influenza-induced LRI cases in children admitted to a tertiary children's hospital. Molecular diagnostic evaluation was performed on samples obtained from the most severe cases. Results We identified 66 patients with influenza-associated hospitalization and included 21 patients with influenza virus-induced LRI for analyses. Twelve patients (57%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, seven (33%) required mechanical ventilation, and three (14%) required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Plastic bronchitis (PB) was identified in six patients (29%), among whom a past medical history of asthma or food allergy were noted in all six patients. A past history of allergic disease was more common among patients with, than among those without, PB (p = 0.009). A(H1N1)pdm09 was detected from all the PB cases, and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes demonstrated that this virus belonged to subclades 6B.1 and 6B.2. In the six PB cases, we found one patient with H275Y mutation in neuraminidase. Conclusion Allergic disease was a risk factor for developing PB due to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection during the 2015–16 season.
Kit used: FTD Respiratory pathogens 21
2018 Article - "Live-Attenuated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Candidate With Deletion of RNA Synthesis Regulatory Protein M2-2 is Highly Immunogenic in Children" (limited access)
Background: Live respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) candidate vaccine LIDΔM2-2 is attenuated by deletion of the RSV RNA regulatory protein M2-2, resulting in upregulated viral gene transcription and antigen expression but reduced RNA replication.
Methods: RSV-seronegative children ages 6–24 months received a single intranasal dose of 105 plaque forming units (PFU) of LIDΔM2-2 (n = 20) or placebo (n = 9) (NCT02237209, NCT02040831). RSV serum antibodies, vaccine infectivity, and reactogenicity were assessed. During the following RSV season, participants were monitored for respiratory illness and pre- and post-RSV season serum antibodies.
Results: Vaccine virus was shed by 95% of vaccinees (median peak titers of 3.8 log10 PFU/mL by quantitative culture and 6.3 log10 copies/mL by PCR); 90% had ≥4-fold rise in serum neutralizing antibodies. Respiratory symptoms and fever were common in vaccine (95%) and placebo (78%). One vaccinee had grade 2 rhonchi concurrent with vaccine shedding, rhinovirus, and enterovirus. Eight of 19 vaccinees versus 2 of 9 placebo recipients had substantially increased RSV antibody titers after the RSV season without medically attended RSV disease, indicating anamnestic vaccine responses to wild-type RSV without significant illness.
Conclusion: LIDΔM2-2 had excellent infectivity and immunogenicity, encouraging further study of vaccine candidates attenuated by M2-2 deletion.
Kit used: FTD FTD Respiratory pathogens 21
2018 Article - "Randomised controlled trial of rhinothermy for treatment of the common cold: a feasibility study" (pdf, 858KB)
Objective: To determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of rhinothermy for the common cold.
Design: Open label, randomised, controlled feasibility study.
Setting: Single-centre research institute in New Zealand recruiting participants from the community.
Participants: 30 adult participants with symptoms of a common cold, presenting within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms.
Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned 2:1 to receive either 35 L/min of 100% humidified air at 41°C via high flow nasal cannulae, 2 hours per day for up to 5 days (rhinothermy), or vitamin C 250 mg daily for 5 days (control).
Primary and secondary outcome measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of screened candidates who were randomised.
Secondary outcomes included: proportion of randomised participants who completed the study; modified Jackson scores from randomisation to 10 days after initiation of randomised regimen; time until feeling ‘a lot better’ compared with study entry; time until resolution of symptoms or symptom score at 10 days postrandomisation; proportion of organisms identified by PCR analysis of nasal swabs taken at baseline; the patterns of use of the rhinothermy device; estimated adherence of the control group; and rhinothermy device tolerability.
Results: In all 30/79 (38%, 95% CI 27% to 50%) of potential participants screened for eligibility were randomised. Rhinothermy was well tolerated, and all randomised participants completed the study (100%, 95% CI 88% to 100%). The reduction from baseline in the modified Jackson score was greater with rhinothermy compared with control at days 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, with the maximum difference at day 4 (−6.4, 95% CI −9.4 to −3.3). The substantial clinical benefit threshold for modified Jackson score was a 5-unit change.
Conclusions: This study shows that an RCT of rhinothermy compared with low-dose vitamin C in the treatment of the common cold is feasible.
Kit used: FTD Respiratory pathogens 21
Siemens Healthineers announces acquisition of Fast Track Diagnostics