Fast Track Diagnostics and UgenTec announce new interpretation software for all FTD real-time PCR multiplex kits
2017 Article - "Chikungunya, dengue and West Nile virus infections in Northern Tanzania" (pdf, 95KB)
Summary: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) in Bondo and Magugu wards in Handeni and Babati districts in Northern Tanzania, in a cross sectional analytical study.
This was cross sectional, community based study involving individuals aged 1-80 years of age. Reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect arboviruses in whole blood samples. Data was analyzed using SPSS 22.0. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of explanatory factors and arbovirus infection.
Out of 128 participants recruited, 10 (7.8%) and 1 (0.8 %) were positive for CHIKV and DENV, respectively. None of the participants recruited was positive for WNV. Most cases of arboviruses were detected in Magugu with 8 (12.31%) and 1 (1.54%) individuals being positive for
CHIKV and DENV respectively. Male sex was associated with CHIKV infection (χ2=9.126, p=0.003), with five times more odds of having CHIKV infection compared to females (OR: 5.30;(95%CI: 1.21-23.17), P=0.027). No WNV case was detected in any of the sites.
CHIKV is the most prevalent arbovirus in the Northern part of Tanzania. Magugu site has more arbovirus transmission than Bondo site. WNV could be a rare virus in the Northern part of Tanzania. Male sex is associated with higher CHIKV infection rates, with older children being more affected.
Kit used: FTD Tropical fever core
Syphilis makes its comeback
2017 Article - "Goal directed therapy for suspected acute bacterial meningitis in adults and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa" (pdf, 2MB)
Summary: Mortality from acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in sub-Saharan African adults and adolescents exceeds 50%. This group tested if Goal Directed Therapy (GDT) was feasible for adults and adolescents with clinically suspected ABM in Malawi.
Sequential patient cohorts of adults and adolescents with clinically suspected ABM were recruited in the emergency department of a teaching hospital in Malawi using a before/after design. Routine care was monitored in year one (P1). In year two (P2), nurses delivered protocolised GDT (rapid antibiotics, airway support, oxygenation, seizure control and fluid resuscitation) to a second cohort. The primary endpoint was composite mean number of clinical goals attained. Secondary endpoints were individual goals attained and death or disability from proven or probable ABM at day 40.
563 patients with suspected ABM were enrolled in the study; 273 were monitored in P1; 290 patients with suspected ABM received GDT in P2. 61% were male, median age 33 years and 90% were HIV co-infected. ABM was proven or probable in 132 (23%) patients. GDT attained more clinical goals compared to routine care: composite mean number of goals in P1 was 0·55 vs. 1·57 in P2 GDT (p<0·001); Death or disability by day 40 from proven or probable ABM occurred in 29/57 (51%) in P1 and 38/60 (63%) in P2 (p = 0·19).
Kit used: FTD Bacterial meningitis
2017 Article - "The 2015–2016 influenza epidemic: Late onset, clinical severity and emergence of the B Victoria virus" (pdf, 144KB)
Summary:Flu is a viral infection caused by influenza viruses. There are three types (A, B and C) and only A (A1H1N1 and AH3N2) and B (Victoria line and Yamagata line) are responsible for major seasonal epidemics with a circulation predominance for virus A.
However, the 2015-2016 epidemic was different with an unusually high circulation of virus B (Victoria), leading to carry out a descriptive retrospective study at the university hospital (CHU) in Bordeaux.
A total of 110 patients with a positive PCR with a mean age of 53.3 years (16-90 years) were involved in the study.
The positive diagnosis was made using a multiplex PCR with the kits available at the CHU de Bordeaux (Anyplex® II RV16, Allplex®Respiratory Panel and Fast Track®Flu Differentiation). Virus B positive sample subtyping was performed by the CNR de Lyon.
Type A virus was mostly isolated in 57 patients (52%) with a predominance of subtype A (H1N1) in 50 patients (45% of the total). Type B viruses were isolated from 53 patients (48%) with the Victoria line virus in 47 patients (43% of the workforce).
It was late onset epidemic (March-May), 23% of the patient were vaccinated. Same severity for type A (25%) and type B Victoria strain (23%).
Conclusion: The flu epidemic of 2015-2016 was different from the other years of an unusual overrepresentation of B / Victoria in hospital. There was a mismatch between vaccine lineage B / Yamagata and the circulating major strain Victoria with unprotected patients at risk. This study probably provides additional arguments to encourage seasonal influenza vaccination by a quadrivalent vaccine containing both subtypes A and the two B-line viruses (Victoria and Yamagata).
Kit used: FTD Flu differentiation
2017 Article - "Diagnostic Approach to Viral Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in Paedriatric Age Group: a study from New Delhi" (pdf, 110KB)
Summary: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome has heralded the emergence of multiple virulent pathogens, which may result in severe morbidity and mortality. In India, encephalitis is not notified and there has been a dearth of analysis for trends in encephalitis death rates and causation. A downward trend has been observed in encephalitis deaths, due to ‘known’ causes, which can be largely explained by improvement in diagnostic, treatment, and prevention methods. There is still a very high proportion of encephalitis deaths in developing countries, where the aetiological diagnosis of the pathogen is not established and thus, lies the importance of monitoring encephalitis morbidity and mortality with a view to improve pathogen diagnosis and identify emerging infectious diseases.
The aim of the study was to formulate a diagnostic approach to viral acute encephalitis syndrome in paediatric age group.
A cross-sectional study including 50 paediatric patients, clinically diagnosed with acute encephalitis syndrome using WHO criteria was conducted. The CSF of all the patients was evaluated to diagnose the aetiology for viral pathogens. ELISA was used for diagnosing Japanese encephalitis and dengue encephalitis; and multiplex real time PCR was used for detecting HSV-1, HSV-2, Varicella zoster virus, Mumps virus, Enterovirus and Parechovirus (FTD Viral meningitis).
Confirmed diagnosis was established in 11 (22%) of 50 cases. A confirmed or probable viral agent of encephalitis was found in 7 (14%), bacterial agent was found in 2 (4%), non-infectious aetiology was found in 2 (4%). Fatal outcome was independently associated with patient age.
Despite extensive testing, the aetiologies of more than three fourth of the cases remains elusive. Nevertheless the result from the present study may be useful for future design of early diagnosis and treatment of the disease. New strategies for pathogen identification and continued analysis of clinical features and case histories should help us improve our ability to diagnose, treat and prevent encephalitis.
Overall, the multiplex assay accommodates lower costs and faster turn-around times for the detection of common pathogens found in CSF. The sensitivity and specificity of FTD Viral meningitis surpasses that of culturing techniques. It has shown comparable sensitivity to the singleplex Light cycler assays and improved ability to distinguish HSV-1 and HSV-2.
Kit used: FTD Viral meningitis
2017 Article - "Pertussis and Pertussis like Illness: Pediatric Experience in Oman" (pdf, 844KB)
Summary: A resurgence of pertussis or whooping cough has been observed worldwide despite broad vaccination coverage. Pertussis like illness (PLI) refers to a clinical syndrome compatible with pertussis infection but lacking laboratory confirmation or an epidemiological link to a confirmed case. Our study aimed to estimate the contribution of Bordetella pertussis infection and identifying predictors of its diagnosis in a cohort of children with PLI. Demographic and clinical information were retrospectively collected from the medical records of children < 13 years old and hospitalized for PLI in two pediatric units in Oman from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013. The laboratory data of all cases were reviewed and confirmed cases of pertussis were identified, analyzed, and compared with non-confirmed cases.A total of 131 patients were enrolled in this study. The majority (95.4% [125/131]) were infants. Only 54.1% (71/131) of admitted children with PLI were tested for pertussis. The incidence of pertussis infection among the tested group was 16.9% (12/71) with a 95% confidence interval 8.2−25.6. Severe illness occurred in 56.4% (74/131) of patients, and six were confirmed to have pertussis. Pediatric intensive care unit admission was required for one confirmed case of pertussis and eight cases from the PLI group (three were negative for pertussis, and five were not tested). Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis revealed that a white blood cell count 3 23.5 × 109/L had 96.6% specificity and lymphocytes 3 17 × 109/L had 98.3% specificity.
Taking into consideration that the number tested for pertussis was limited, the incidence of pertussis was 16.9% (12 out of 71 patients). Lymphocytosis can be used as a reliable predictor for the diagnosis of pertussis especially in the absence of specific confirmatory tests or until their results are available.
Kit used: FTD Respiratory pathogens 21
New FTlyo Enteric fever kit now available
Fast Track Diagnostics wins "Advanced Healthcare Solutions" awards
Drift variants of influenza B/Victoria